Edward Carpenter: A Nonhuman Bibliography

7 January 2019
By Charlotte O’Neill

I will keep this preamble brief, as I was lucky to introduce this resource to the network at ShARC Tales, the wonderfully productive workshop we held in November. What follows is a bibliography which curates resources found in the Edward Carpenter Collection at Sheffield Archives. Carpenter (1844-1929), who lived just outside Sheffield, is remembered for his sexual radicalism and socialist poetry; this bibliography, however, uncovers his rich cache of writing related to the nonhuman animal. It traces Carpenter’s animal rights advocacy – from his vegetarianism to his outspoken opposition of vivisection – as it manifests in his relevant major works, as well as other archival sources such as letters, newspaper clippings, and manuscript drafts.

For ease of navigation through this dense and diverse collection of works, I have subcategorised the bibliography, as well as providing reference information and commentary for each resource. It is my hope that the bibliography will inspire animal studies scholars to consider Carpenter as a richly complex source of thought beyond the human, and conversely, that scholars of Carpenter are signposted to this underexplored aspect of his heterogeneous thought.

Corrections and questions can be directed to coneill2@sheffield.ac.uk. With thanks to Sheffield Archive, and to SURE for funding the preliminary stages of this project.

Carpenter’s writing on vivisection:

1893: Humanitarian League Publications; pamphlet called ‘Vivisection’ containing an essay on the topic by Edward Maitland, and Carpenter’s ‘Medical Science: the True Method and the False’ (1893)

1905: New Humanitarian Publications; pamphlet called ‘Vivisection’ containing ‘Medical Science: the True Method and the False’ alongside an essay by Carpenter on ‘Vivisection’ originally delivered in 1903

1898: Manuscript lecture notes for a separate ‘Vivisection’ lecture, context ambiguous although ‘Liverpool, Sheff, Leeds’ is written in the corner of the page and later writes ‘Sheffield YMCA Rooms Nov. 98 and [Birmingham?] Grand Hotel 14 Mch 99’

Letter from E.C. concerning vivisection (date and newspaper unknown), Holmesfield, June 12

1894: A different article in ‘The Clarion,’ by Carpenter, on ‘Vivisection’

Miscellaneous newspaper cuttings on vivisection in the Carpenter Collection:

1908: Newspaper account (publication unknown) of a meeting of the ‘British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection,’ over which Carpenter presided.

1908: Pamphlet produced by the ‘British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection’ advertising the above meeting, at which Carpenter gave a speech (not available in full) called ‘Rational and Irrational Methods of Research’

1904: Review of ‘Vivisection’ (the second lecture, in its 1904 pamphlet form) in ‘The Medical Times and Hospital Gazette’

1903: Letters to the editor (none by Carpenter) on ‘Vivisection,’ ‘The Daily News’

1909: ‘Socialism and Vivisection,’ a letter to the editor of ‘The New Age’ by F.H. Burlingham

Daily News (date unknown) Vivisection: Joys of the Torturer, a Reply to the Home Secretary by an anonymous author

1903: Letters from the public (not Carpenter’s) to the editor of the Daily News concerning Vivisection

1898: Account of a meeting of Liverpool Anti-Vivisection Society (Carpenter not in attendance), newspaper unnamed

1908: Extract from ‘The Abolitionist,’ an incomplete extract from an anti-vivisection debate which Carpenter did not appear to attend

1911: ‘Pioneers of anti-vivisection No.IV Edward Maitland,’ in ‘The Anti-Vivisection Review’

1906: Description of the ‘Cruelty to Animals Bill 1906’ in ‘The Tribune’

Around this area of the NC reel there are also notes and clippings concerning (human) inoculation which may be of interest as an interrelated topic/area of Carpenter’s research: (Carpenter/NC/3/132)

Carpenter’s wider anxieties about science:

Civilisation, Its Cause and Cure, a book of essays by Carpenter criticising modern science. First edition 1889 (Carpenter/Library/1/177), expanded to include the 1896 lecture ‘The Need of a Rational and Humane Science’ in 1906 (Carpenter/Library/1/81) and with the addition of 1907’s ‘The New Morality’ in 1921, became a complete edition (Carpenter/Library/1/87). Available at Western Bank Library. 1891 and 1921 editions available via Archive.org. Relevant chapters:

1889: Henry Salt’s review (I speculate from the leaf decorations that it was for a vegetarian publication) of the essay ‘Civilisation: Its Cause and Cure,’ which first appeared, alone, in The Pioneer in 1889 (though there is no copy of this in the archive)

1885: original pamphlet of ‘Modern Science,’ is later heavily edited for CICAC

Writings by Carpenter concerning other animal welfare issues:

1906: Carpenter’s translation of Reclus’s ‘The Great Kinship,’ The Humanitarian,

1906: Essay by Carpenter entitled ‘Social Reform and the Protection of Animals,’ The Humanitarian, (same edition as above). First appeared in Italian socialist publication Il Lavoro

1913: Essay by Carpenter and George Merrill, ‘The Language of Domestic Fowls’ (originally printed in Country Life, here reprinted in The Humanitarian, Sept.

1913: Carpenter’s essay ‘Sport and Agriculture,’ in The Humanitarian:

Newspaper cuttings from the Carpenter Collection concerning animal rights/related context:

1905: Clipping of a newspaper advertisement for the RSPCA

1904: The only issue (Vol 1 No.1) of Henry Salt’s parodic journal, ‘The Brutalitarian, a Journal for the Sane and Strong’

1906: Newspaper advert for ‘Mapleton’s Nut Foods’ in the corner of an unrelated article

1909 (October 18th): 62nd Anniversary of the Vegetarian Society meeting, Carpenter presides as chairman and speaks. Transcribed in The Vegetarian Messenger, 314-324.

1909: City News report of this event called ‘Vegetarians Marching On: A Deathless Army’

1909: Excerpt by Auguste Rodin in The Conservator, 1, taken from Rodin’s correspondence with Paul Gsell (later published in L’Art, 1911) (translator unknown). Annotated in Carpenter’s hand with the title ‘Nature Religion’

Carpenter’s correspondence relevant to animal rights issues:

Undated: draft of a letter to the Chairman of the Blue Cross concerning the welfare of horses

1929: Packet of letters sent to G.W. Clemas, primarily concerning Carpenter’s death

1886-1919: Letters from Kate Salt to Edward Carpenter

1888-1914: Letters from Edward Carpenter to Kate Salt

1890 onwards: letters from Henry Salt to Edward Carpenter (Carpenter/MSS/356). The correspondence from Carpenter to Salt is not available. Most notably:

Carpenter’s writings and miscellaneous archival cuttings about India:

1892: Carpenter’s book from Adam’s Peak to Elephanta first published, available at (Carpenter/Library/1/136) and Western Bank Library. My page references are from the 1921 edition, (Carpenter/Library/1/138). 1892 edition available via Archive.org. Notable page references:

1892: Reviews of ‘Adam’s Peak to Elephanta.’ Contained in (NC/7) (I don’t know where specifically). Most notably:

(Post-1905?): Carpenter’s newspaper cutting of a letter to The Times by Socialist H.M. Hyndman, ‘Our Dead Failure in India’

(Undated) W.H. Campbell, ‘India Misgoverned?’ in The Labour Leader

1900 (Oct): ‘Empire: In India and Elsewhere,’ Humanitarian League Publications pamphlet, reprinted from the Humane Review (pp.1-15)

1927: Light from the East by P. Arunachalam, a posthumous selection of Arunachalam’s letters, edited and containing essays by Carpenter. George Allen and Unwin. (Carpenter/Library/1/262). Most notable excerpts:

(Undated) typescript of letter from P. Arunachalam to E.C., presumably for inclusion in Light from the East

Relevant philosophical writing by Carpenter:

1904: Carpenter’s essay collection The Art of Creation, available in Western Bank Library and at (Carpenter/Library/1/157). 1921 edition available via Archive.org

1922: Carpenter’s essay ‘Health a Conquest’ published in an abridged form (containing parts most relevant to vegetarianism) in Vegetarian News, 222-224. First appeared in Seedtime, 1892 (not available as far as I can see), reprinted in full in The Art of Creation (1904)

1904: Carpenter’s essay ‘Evening in Spring: A Meditation’, originally printed in Seedtime, 1897 (not available as far as I can see), reprinted in full in The Art of Creation

1903: Carpenter’s essay ‘The May-Fly,’ published in The Humane Review, later reprinted in The Art of Creation, 1904

1909: The Christian Commonwealth, p.194- ‘Sun-Worship’ by Edward Carpenter, originally a lecture to the Croydon Ethical and Religious Fellowship in 1909

1920: Carpenter’s essay collection Pagan and Christian Creeds, available in Western Bank Library and at (Carpenter/Library/1/264). 1921 edition available via Archive.org

1920: Pamphlet (George Allen and Unwin) on ‘The Teaching of the Upanishads,’ containing two lectures by Carpenter, ‘Rest’ and ‘The Nature of the Self.’ Originally lectures, published in 1920 in the appendix of Pagan and Christian Creeds

1898: Carpenter’s essay collection Angels’ Wings: A Series of Essays on Art and its Relation to Life, available at Western Bank Library (1913 edition) and at (Carpenter/Library/1/177). 1898 edition available via Archive.org. Relevant chapters:

1912: Carpenter’s essay collection The Drama of Love and Death, available at Western Bank Library. 1912 edition available via Archive.org. Relevant chapters:

Relevant poetic works by Carpenter:

1918: complete edition of Carpenter’s poetry collection Towards Democracy, available at org. Original 1883 edition and 1907 edition available at Western Bank Library, various editions, extracts and foreign language versions available at (Carpenter/Library/1/103-124). 1896 edition available via Archive.org. Four parts and poems of interest within them:

Other relevant works by Carpenter:

1916: My Days and Dreams, Carpenter’s 1916 autobiography, available in Western Bank Library and at (Carpenter/Library/1/225). 1916 edition available at Archive.org.

Relevant page references:

1914: Carpenter’s essay ‘The Meaning of Pain,’ published in The English Review (p.456-470)

1866: Unfinished MS for Carpenter’s university essay (22 years old), ‘On the Continuance of Modern Civilisation’

1887: Carpenter’s essay collection England’s Ideal, and Other Papers on Social Subjects (Carpenter/Library/1/69). 1887 edition available via Archive.org. Relevant chapters:

1908: Sketches of Life and Town and Country, collection of fiction and non-fiction short stories, poems and translations by Carpenter, available at Western Bank Library. 1908 edition available via Archive.org. Relevant chapters: